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TỪ ĐIỂN THIỀN & THUẬT NGỮ PHẬT GIÁO
DICTIONARY OF ZEN & BUDDHIST TERMS
VIỆT – ANH
VIETNAMESE – ENGLISH
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Volume One: Việt-Anh từ A đến B-Vietnamese-English from A to B
Volume Two: Việt-Anh Mẫu Tự C-Vietnamese-English Letter C
Volume Three: Việt-Anh từ D đến G-Vietnamese-English from D to G
Volume Four: Việt-Anh từ H đến K-Vietnamese-English from H to K
Volume Five: Việt-Anh từ L đến M-Vietnamese-English from L to M
Volume Six: Việt-Anh từ N đến P-Vietnamese-English from N to P
Volume Seven: Việt-Anh từ Q đến T-Vietnamese-English from Q to T
Volume Eight: Việt-Anh từ TH đến TO-Vietnamese-English from TH to TO
Volume Nine: Việt-Anh từ TR đến Y-Vietnamese-English from TR to Y
Volume Ten: Anh-Việt từ A đến I-English-Vietnamese from A to I
Volume Eleven: Anh-Việt từ J đến R-English-Vietnamese from J to R
Volume Twelve: Anh-Việt từ S đến Z-English-Vietnamese from S to Z
LỜI GIỚI THIỆU
Đạo hữu Trần Ngọc pháp danh Thiện Phúc không chỉ là một học giả nghiên cứu khá sâu sắc về Phật pháp, mà còn là một Phật tử thuần thành luôn gắng công tu tập để đạt đến con đường giác ngộ và giải thoát. Thiện Phúc đã biên soạn bộ tự điển Phật Học Việt-Ngữ và Anh Ngữ rất kỹ lưỡng. Đồng thời, đạo-hữu cũng đã biên soạn bộ Phật Pháp Căn Bản và mười tập sách giáo lý phổ thông bằng tiếng việt để giúp các bạn trẻ muốn tìm hiểu Phật pháp. Sau khi đọc xong những bộ sách trên, tôi thành thật tán thán công đức của đạo hữu, đã dành ra hai mươi mấy năm trời để nghiên cứu và sáng tác, trong lúc đời sống ở Mỹ rất bận rộn. Hôm nay đạo hữu Thiện-Phúc lại đem bản thảo bộ Từ Điển Thiền và Thuật Ngữ Phật Giáo nhờ tôi viết lời giới thiệu. Tác phẩm “Từ Điển Thiền và Thuật Ngữ Phật Giáo” được viết bằng hai ngôn ngữ Việt-Anh rất dễ hiểu. Sau khi đọc xong, tôi nhận thấy bộ sách với gần 7.000 trang giấy khổ lớn toàn bộ viết về những thuật ngữ Thiền, những lời dạy của Phật Tổ Thích Ca Mâu Ni và chư Tổ về phương pháp Thiền định, cũng như hành trạng của các Thiền Sư Trung Hoa, Đại Hàn, Nhật Bản và Việt Nam.
Sa-môn Thích Chơn Thành
Mr. Ngoc Tran, his Buddha Name Thien Phuc, is not only a Buddhist scholar, but he is also a devout practitioner who always tries his best to cultivate to achieve enlightenment and emancipation. He has an extensive knowledge of Buddhism. Thien Phuc is also the author of Vietnamese-English Buddhist Dictionary, English-Vietnamese Buddhist Dictionary, the Basic Buddhist Doctrines, and ten volumes of Buddhism in Daily Life. These books help Buddhists understand the application of Buddhist theory in their daily activities. After reading these volumes, I sincerely commend Thien Phuc, who has spent more than two decades studying and composing these books, regardless of his busy and hurried life in the United States. Today, Mr. Thien Phuc Ngoc Tran brought me a draft of his work called “Dictionary of Zen & Buddhist Terms” which comprises of nine volumes, and asked me to write an introduction for this work. The work is written in Vietnamese and English and is very easy to understand. After reading the draft of “Dictionary of Zen & Buddhist Terms”, I found that this work with almost 7,000 large-sized pages were written about all Zen terms, the Buddha’s and Patriarches’ teachings on methods of resettlement of mind, as well as actions from Ancient Zen Masters from China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam.
Even though Zen Masters say that Zen practitioners do not depend on written words to teach or grasp the Zen teachings because reading and intepting the Buddhist scriptures will not lead to enlightenment, but Zen practitioners should never forget the fact that scriptures always play one of the most important roles in cultivation: the scriptures are like a road map – while the map can show you where you would like to go and even set out the quickest route, you still must travel the road for yourself. And not depending on written words requires that practitioners learn through practice and experience. In short, even though Zen Buddhism places great emphasis on practices, a practitioner must perform to gain proper insight into Zen teachings, but written guidelines are still necessary for any Zen beginners.
It should be noted that official introduction of Zen to China in around 520 is attributed to Bodhidharma, though it came earlier, and its extension to T’ien-T’ai. But by the second century, Tongkin (North Vietnam) already had several famous monks, especially Sanghapala. It is believed that among the three ancient Buddhist centers in East Asia, Lo-Yang, Peng-Ch’eng, and Luy-Lau, Luy Lau center in Giao Chi (Tongkin) was then the first to be founded under the Han Dynasty, around the early first century A.D. Luy Lau at that time was the capital of Giao Chi, which was then a Chinese colony, was on the main trade route between India and China, so before landing in China, most pioneer Indian monks landed in Tongkin. Therefore, Luy Lau became a favorable and prosperous resort for Indian pioneer missionaries to stay and pach the Buddha’s Teachings before continuing their journey to the North. And therefore, the Order Buddhism of Luy Lau was founded even before the ones in Lo-Yang and Peng-Ch’eng. According to the document recorded in an Anthology of the Most Talented Figures in Ch’an Park, our most ancient Buddhist literary collection, Master K’ang Seng Hui, a monk of Sogdian origin, was the first Buddhist Master at Luy Lau Center. He was born in Tongkin, where he was received into the Order of monks afterwards. He became the most famous monk who translated a large number of Buddhist Canonical books into Chinese and later he visited Nan-King, where he built the first temple and pached the Dharma. At that time, Luy Lau had more than 20 temples and 500 monks. Hjiang-Jing-Hui was the first Vietnamese Zen master; however, Vietnamese Zen sects only developed at the time of Zen master Vinitaruci in the sixth century. As a matter of fact, Vietnamese Zen Buddhism had not developed until 580 when Vinitaruci, an Indian monk, a disciple of the Third Patriarch Seng-Ts’an, long before its split into northern and southern schools. The first lineage of Vietnamese Zen Masters ended with the death of its twenty-eighth patriarch in 1216, however, its influence continued to be prominent in the north (see Ty Ni Na Luu Chi). The second Zen lineage in Vietnam was initiated in the end of the eighth century by the Chinese monk named Wu-Yun-T’ung, a disciple of Pai-Zhang. This lineage of Zen Masters also died out in the thirteenth century, though the school itself survives. Although the first two lineages of Zen did not survive as lineages, they did lay the solid foundations for future Vietnamese Buddhism. In 1069, the Ly dynasty’s campaign of southward expansion against Champa reached its farthest extent, the seventeenth parallel. In the course of this campaign, a very significant prisoner of war was brought to Thang Long Capital from captured Champa territory. This prisoner was the Chinese monk Ts’ao-Tang. With the strong support of king Lý Thánh Tôn (1054-1072), Ts’ao-Tang established the Ts’ao-Tang Zen lineage in the eleventh century. Later, Trúc Lâm Zen sect was founded by the first patriarch Trần Nhân Tông in the end of the thirteenth century. While in the twelfth century, the tradition of Lin-Chi school was brought from China by Zen master Eisai Zenji (1141-1215); and in the first half of the 13th century, the tradition of Soto school was brought to Japan from China by the Japanese master Dogen Zenji (1200-1253). In Vietnam, until the 17th century, a number of Chinese monks came to Vietnam and founded such Ch’an Sects as the Lin-Chi Sect and the T’ao Tung Sect. They were warmlly received by both Trinh Lords in the North and Nguyen Lords in the South. The Ch’an Sect of Truc Lam was also restored. All these show us that Zen has become a part of our life and our Vietnamese culture for almost two thousand years. It is to say, when talking about a peaceful life in Buddhism, people think right away of meditation.
I totally agree with Thien Phuc about the subject of “Dictionary of Zen & Buddhist Terms” for the purpose of any Buddhist practitioner is “Enlightenment and Emancipation” and the purpose of Zen is also the same, also reaching the state of mind that is without sorrow or without worry. In other words, Zen means something that does not disturb the body and mind. Zen practitioners practice zen in order to obtain the most peaceful state of mind in daily life. Thien Phuc has given the most earnest consideration as to what to include in this series, as it would be easy to stray into the almost unlimited field of sayings and doings of the many Chinese, Japanese and Vietnamese Zen Masters and Teachers. In order to be able to do this, Thien Phuc has tried to make each term in the “Dictionary of Zen & Buddhist Terms” a step that helps us to approach the enlightenment and emancipation that the Buddha mentioned twenty six hundred years ago. I think whoever has the opportunity to make a reference to the “Dictionary of Zen & Buddhist Terms” and dilifently practice will achieve the most peaceful states of mind. With the spirit of broad Dharma offering, Mr. Thien Phuc Ngoc Tran hopes that he has psented the Zen ideas clearly and sufficient history and biography to give a ptty clear picture of the growth of Zen in China, Japan and Vietnam.
After reading these volumes, I sincerely thank Mr. Thien Phuc Ngoc Tran, who has sacrificed so much time and efforts in his busy life in the United States in order to be able to complete this work and contribute to our unlimited happiness and peace for all of us. This work is the unthinkable merit of giving of the Buddhadharma. I am very please to praise the author’s merits for his accomplishment of this rare religious and cultural work. These books are also a genuine contribution to the propagation of the Dharma. I also want to take this opportunity to send my appciation to Mr. Thien Phuc Ngoc Tran for his altruism. For the sake of all beings’ unlimited happiness and peace, he has spent so much time and untiring efforts to complete this work.
By the commemoration festival of the Vesak (Buddha’s Birth Day) in the year of 2559 (2015), I am glad to introduce this great work to all Monks, Nuns, lay-people and all other readers. This is pcious spiritual nourishment not only for Monks and Nuns in temples but also for everybody. With the hope that each and everyone of you will possess and to utilize the “Dictionary of Zen & Buddhist Terms” as a guide to aid in your deeper study of Buddha-Dharma so that we can all have peaceful and happy lives at the psent moment. In fact, when we understand the core meanings of the Buddhadharma, especially the exact meanings and methods of Zen practices, we can put them into practice in our life to improve our body and mind and, eventually to attain the Way.
Most Ven. Thich Chơn Thành
Một lần nữa, Hy vọng những quyển sách nhỏ nầy sẽ thật sự giúp ích cho những ai muốn tìm biết thêm về chân lý thực tánh vạn hữu. Như đã nói trên, đây không phải là một tuyệt tác hoàn chỉnh, vì thế chúng tôi chân thành cảm tạ sự chỉ dạy của chư học giả và các bậc cao minh.
This work is not an ordinary English-Vietnamese or Vietnamese-English Dictionary, nor is this a Total Zen and Buddhist Terminology. This is only a small work that compiles of some basic Zen and Buddhist terms, and related terms that are often seen in Zen and Buddhist texts in English with the hope to help Vietnamese Buddhists and Zen practitioners understand more Zen teachings and Buddhist essays written in English or Buddhist Three Baskets translated into English from either Pali or Sanscrit. Buddha teachings taught by the Buddha 26 centuries ago were so deep and so broad that it’s difficult for any one to understand thoroughly, even in their own languages. Beside, there are no absolute English or Vietnamese equivalents for numerous Pali and Sanskrit words. It’s even more difficult for Vietnamese people who have tried to read Vietnamese texts partly translated from the Chinese Mahayana without making a fallacious interptation. In this work, all the diacritical marks in Romanized Chinese, Sanskrit and Pali words have been left out, since, in my poor opinion, they would only be causing more confusing to the general readers. For Chinese, Sanskrit, and Pali scholars, these marks may not be necessary for they will at once recognize the original characters.
According to Zen tradition, the teachings of Zen are said to date back to the historical Buddha, Sakyamuni, who wordlessly transmitted them to Mahakasyapa, one of his most talented disciples. The tradition names a series of twenty-eight Indian Patriarchs who passed the teachings on, beginning with the historical Buddha and Mahakasyapa, then culminating in India with Patriarch Bodhidharma. In the fifth century, Bodhidharma traveled to China, where he took on Chinese disciples. From among them, Bodhidharma is said to have selected Hui-k’o to be his official successor. The tradition then traces its lineage through six generations of Chinese Patriarchs, concluding with Sixth Patriarch Hui-neng. Therefore, we can be determined that all forms of Zen Buddhism existing today trace their origins back to the Sixth Patriarch, Bodhidharma, and the historical Buddha, Sakyamuni. Especially for Vietnamese people, as you know, Buddhist teaching and tradition have deeply rooted in Vietnamese society for at least 20 centuries, and the majority of Vietnamese, in the country or abroad, directly or indirectly practice Buddha teachings. Truly speaking, nowadays Buddhist or Non-Buddhist are searching for Buddhist text books with the hope of expanding their knowledge and improving their life.
In the hope of helping beginning Zen practitioners further an understanding of Zen and making things easier for them to search for practical instructions from the past Zen Masters, I venture to compose this little Dictionary of Zen and Buddhist Terms. These volumes not only include Zen and Buddhist terms, but they also include a number of short stories of lives of the past Zen Masters and their teachings. In the hope that from these documents we may obtain a picture of the lives and works of the Zen Masters, thus getting a clearer idea of how Zen work is actually done. For none is better qualified than these accomplished Masters to deal with the subject of Zen practice. Therefore, in my poor opinion, to follow the past Zen masters’ examples and instructions is the best and safest way to practice Zen.
For these reasons, until an adequate and complete Dictionary of Zen and Buddhist Terms is in existence, I have temerariously tried to compile some most useful Zen and Buddhist terms, and related terms which I have collected from reading Zen and Buddhist texts in English during the last twenty-five years. I agree that there are surely a lot of deficiencies and errors in these booklets and I am far from considering this attempt as final and perfect; however, with a wish of sharing the gift of truth, I am not reluctant to publish and spad these booklets to everyone. Besides, the Buddha taught: “Among Dana, the Dharma Dana or the gift of truth of Buddha’s teachings is the highest of all donations on earth.”
I wish to expss my deep gratitude to my original teacher, Most Venerable Thich Giac Nhieân, President of the International Sangha Bhikshu Buddhist Association. I also wish to appciate all monks and nuns, as well as everybody in my family who have been helping me a lot in the process of composing this work. And above all, the author would like first to respectfully offer this work to the Triratna, and secondly to demit the good produced by composing these books to all other sentient beings, universally, past, psent and future. Hoping everyone can see the real benefit of the Buddha’s teachings, and hoping that some day every sentient being will be able to enter the Eternal Nirvana.
Chân thành cảm ơn tác gỉa Cư Sĩ Thiện Phúc đã trao tặng Thư Viện Hoa Sen bộ Tự Điển Thiền & Thuật Ngữ Phật Giáo Việt – Anh ấn bản giấy và phiên bản vi tính điện tử. (Tâm Diệu 8-3-2016)
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